team game
2–4 teams (usually 2)
1–8 players per team

Netrek is an Internet game for up to 16 players, written almost entirely in cross-platform open source software. It combines features of multi-directional shooters and team-based real-time strategy games. Players attempt to disable or destroy their opponents‘ ships in real-time combat, while taking over enemy planets by bombing them and dropping off armies they pick up on friendly planets. The goal of the game is to capture all the opposing team’s planets.

Developed as a successor to 1986’s Xtrek, Netrek was first played in 1988. It was the third Internet game, the first Internet team game, and as of 2011 is the oldest Internet game still actively played. It pioneered many technologies used in later games, and has been cited as prior art in patent disputes. Xtrek and Netrek are the oldest games of what is now called the MOBA genre.

Netrek is essentially a greatly expanded version of Empire, a multi-user space combat game that ran on the PLATO. Empire, in turn, is essentially a multi-user version of the seminal Spacewar!, the earliest computer video game. Like those games, in Netrek each player takes command of a starship, which they pilot about a 2D map of the game galaxy, as seen from above. The game combines both tactical combat and strategic goals.

The game galaxy consists of 40 planets distributed about the map. The map is further divided into 4 sectors of 10 planets each. Netrek divided the players into one of four teams, loosely based on the Star Trek universe; the Federation, Romulans, Klingons, and Orions (or „feds“, „roms“, „klis“, and „oris“, respectively). Each team is assigned to a single sector when the map is reset.

The planets differ from each other in terms of military or agricultural development; at the start of a game each team has several planets under their control one of which is their homeworld, usually named after an actual planet in the Star Trek Universe (such as Earth for feds, Romulus for roms, Orion for oris, Klingus for klis). Some worlds, however, have special facilities that help any friendly units in orbit of them. Repair facilities, represented by a wrench, speed up repairs to the player’s hull and shields, which take damage while battling enemies. Fuel depots, represented by a fuel can, speed up the fuel recharge rate of any ships in orbit of the planet. Some worlds may have both these while others have one or none. As well as fuel and repair facilities, some planets generate armies at a faster rate than other planets; these planets are known as agricultural planets, or „agris.“ A team’s home planet always offers fuel and repair facilities, but is never an agricultural planet. Of the nine other starting planets, two are agricultural and others are assigned fuel depots or repair facilities. Planets slowly generate armies (and at a faster rate if agricultural), which may be beamed up by players, and then beamed back down onto enemy planets to capture them. Planets can be bombed to kill off armies, but only to a point; dropping armies is always required.

Planets will fire upon enemy ships in orbit, even to the point of captured homeworlds firing upon ships from the homeworld’s starting faction as they appear over the planet.

Unlike Spacewar! or Empire, Netrek includes many different ship types with their own strengths and weaknesses. Some, like the scout, are faster and are useful for long range hit-and-run attacks. Others, like the battleship, are extremely powerful but slow, useful primarily for point defense.

A player obtains „kills“ either by killing an enemy ship or by bombing enemy armies. The number of kills decides how many armies a player’s ship can carry. The player’s kill count resets back to 0 each time their ship is destroyed, requiring them to obtain more kills before they can carry armies and capture planets. Consequently, people with 2 or more kills are often targeted for ogging (a kind of kamikaze attack) just to remove the threat of them carrying armies.

Enemy ships can be destroyed using two main weapons systems: phasers and photon torpedoes. Phasers are instantaneous beam weapons which cannot be dodged, while torpedoes take time to travel to the target and thus can be dodged. Other shipboard combat systems include shields, and tractor and pressor beams. When a ship is destroyed, the player chooses a new ship and reappears next to their team’s homeworld.

In addition, ships also sustain damage if they are too close to an explosion, such as those created by another ship being destroyed, and ships take damage from hostile planets they are close to.

The ultimate goal of the game is to capture all of the enemy’s planets. Game play is normally between only two teams, the other two quarters of the galaxy being known as „third space“, referring to the third-party nature of the non-playing teams. When two teams each have at least four players, the server enters „Tournament Mode“, or „T-Mode“, in which planets can be bombed and captured. Once one team has only two planets remaining, a twenty-minute count down timer for their automatic surrender begins. Capturing a third planet will freeze the counter, while a fourth will remove the threat of automatic surrender.

If one or both teams have less than four players, the game enters „Pre-T Mode“, in which a team wins by simply having 4 more planets than their opponents. In this mode, stats are not saved, and the Pre-T galaxy is erased when „T-Mode“ exists. On some servers, „Pre-T Robots“ fill in empty player spots to create a 4 vs. 4 game, but get replaced by players as the players log on.

Players join and leave the game as they wish. Pickup games can be as short as ten or fifteen minutes, but are normally much longer. „Clue Games“ are games between experienced players, which are usually timed for an hour with a half-hour of overtime, and a scoring system is used to determine victory.

Netrek is largely derived from Empire, written for the PLATO mainframe system beginning in 1973. It shares many characteristics of that game; key differences include a different planet layout and a much different pace of play, as well as evolutionary factors such as the use of mice instead of keyboard commands, TCP/IP networking, and the inclusion of color and sound.

In 1982, UC Berkeley student David Davis began writing a UNIX game called trek82, based on what he remembered of Empire when he used the PLATO system while at the University of Hawaii. This version emerged as trek82, using character graphics for display and a shared file to exchange data. Chris Guthrie joined Davis, and introduced him to Jef Poskanzer and Craig Leres, who were working on a more strategic offshoot of Empire called Conquest. They produced an updated version known as trek83.

In 1986, Guthrie began porting trek83 to the newly released X Window System, producing Xtrek. Further development took place at the XCF, with the help of Ed James. In the spring of 1988, Xtrek II was written by Scott Silvey and K. Smith, moving from a model which used X as a transport to the game having its own client–server protocol. This was key in allowing the game to be ported to other platforms, which may or may not support X. This version was later developed into Netrek by Scott Silvey, Kevin Smith and Terence Chang.

In 1989, the source code was posted to Usenet. In the fall of 1990, UCB alumnus Terence Chang set up a public Netrek server at Carnegie Mellon University where he was attending graduate school. In spring 1991, the first inter-scholastic game was played between UCB and CMU, and in January 1992, the „International Netrek League“ (INL) was formed, so that teams could form and compete with one another (as opposed to pick-up play, in which games are played by whoever connects to a server, and players enter and leave as they wish during the course of the game). Netrek was very popular in the Carnegie Mellon computer clusters for a number of years in the early 1990s.

In 1993, Heiko Wengler at Universität Dortmund added Short Packets, an improved network protocol that reduced traffic by 40-75% and enabled competitive play via low-bandwidth connections.

Netrek play peaked in the middle to late 1990s, with several leagues existing for different forms of the game as well as for different regions, and several pickup games always active, 24 hours per day, seven days per week. Between 2002 and 2006 there was a steady decline in play. As of early 2007, Netrek has seen a moderate increase in playerbase coupled with a mild renaissance in development. In late 2006 Mactrek, a new client for the Macintosh, was released, and substantial changes are being made to the Windows clients as well as various server enhancements. Currently there is a move from 10 frame/s to 50 frame/s, and the addition of voice chat is being considered.

Netrek pioneered the use of many technologies and design features that later found their way into commercial network games, including:

Dean Martin Sings Songs from „The Silencers“

Dean Martin Sings Songs from „The Silencers“ is a 1966 studio album by Dean Martin of songs that featured in his film The Silencers, the first of the four films featuring the Matt Helm character that Martin would appear in. A separate soundtrack of instrumental music from the film by Elmer Bernstein was also released. The album was arranged by Ernie Freeman and Gene Page.

Many of the Tin Pan Alley songs featured on this album appeared in the film, as songs imagined by Martin’s character. The album also features four recordings of incidental music from the film.

This was the second of five albums that Martin released in 1966. As well as starring in The Silencers that year he also starred in two other films; another Matt Helm film, Murderer’s Row, and Texas Across the River, and appeared in his own television show. Dean Martin Sings Songs from „The Silencers“ peaked at 108 on the Billboard 200. Dean Martin Sings Songs from „The Silencers“ was the last soundtrack album that Martin recorded. The 1960s had also seen Martin appear on the soundtrack to Robin and the 7 Hoods, a 1964 film fellow Rat Pack members Frank Sinatra and Sammy Davis, Jr., with Bing Crosby.

William Ruhlmann on gave the album two and a half stars out of five. Ruhlmann commented on the „bravura treatment“ given to the songs by Ernie Freeman and Gene Page’s arrangements, but added that as a film tie-in, the album „deservedly didn’t attract much attention, although Martin’s popularity assured it would spend several weeks in the charts.“


Л-П: Daniel C. Brandenstein, Dale A. Gardner, Richard H. Truly, William E. Thornton, Guion S. Bluford, Jr.

STS-8 — третий космический полёт МТКК «Челленджер», восьмой полёт по программе «Спейс шаттл». Вывод на орбиту телекоммуникационного спутника INSAT-1B (англ.). Тестирование канадского манипулятора «Канадарм». Первый афро-американец в космосе — Гайон Блуфорд. Первая ночная посадка.


Челленджер начинает свою третью миссию 30 августа 1983 года, проводит первый ночной запуск программы шаттлов.

INSAT-1B готовят

Технические схема полезной нагрузки летно-испытательного статьи (PFTA)

Удар молнии вблизи стек орбитального, за несколько часов до старта

INSAT-1B после развертывания.

Гай Bluford упражнения на середине палубы беговой дорожке, а на орбите.

Орбитер • РДТТ • Внешний бак • RS-25 (SSME) • OMS • RCS • Канадарм • Спейслэб • Спейсхэб • ММС (MPLM)

Энтерпрайз • Колумбия † • Челленджер † • Дискавери • Атлантис • Индевор

Космический центр Кеннеди LC-39 • База Ванденберг SLC-6

SDLV • Шаттл C • Арес-1 • Арес-5

Патфайндер • Эксплорер • Америка

Режимы аварийного прекращения полёта


Salzgitter (German pronunciation: [zalt͡sˈɡɪtɐ]) is an independent city in southeast Lower Saxony, Germany, located between Hildesheim and Braunschweig. Together with Wolfsburg and Braunschweig, Salzgitter is one of the seven Oberzentren of Lower Saxony (roughly equivalent to a metropolitan area). With 109,142 inhabitants and 223.94 square kilometres (86.46 sq mi) (as of 30 January 2004), its area is the largest in Lower Saxony and one of the largest in Germany. Salzgitter originated as a conglomeration of several small towns and villages, and is today made up of 31 boroughs, which are relatively compact conurbations with wide stretches of open country between them. The main shopping street of the young city is in the borough of Lebenstedt, and the central business district is in the borough of Salzgitter-Bad. The city is connected to the Mittellandkanal and the Elbe-Seitenkanal by a distributary. The nearest metropolises are Braunschweig, about 23 kilometres (14 miles) to the northeast, and Hanover, about 51 km (32 miles) to the northwest. The population of the City of Salzgitter has exceeded 100,000 inhabitants since its foundation in 1942 (which made it a city (Großstadt) in contrast to a town (Stadt) by the German definition), when it was still called Watenstedt-Salzgitter. Beside Wolfsburg, Leverkusen and Eisenhüttenstadt, Salzgitter is therefore one of the few cities in Germany founded during the 20th century.

Until 31 March 1942, „Salzgitter“ was the name of a town where the borough Salzgitter-Bad now is. From then until 1951, „Salzgitter“ was the name of a borough of the city Watenstedt-Salzgitter that existed at the time. In 1951, the borough Salzgitter was renamed Salzgitter-Bad; the name Salzgitter, having thus been freed up, became the new and more succinct name of the city that had been called „Watenstedt-Salzgitter“ until then. (Nowadays, „Salzgitter-Watenstedt“ is the name of a small borough with a few hundred inhabitants.)

Salzgitter is located in a bride dell coated with loess, between the Oderwald Forest and the Salzgitter-Höhenzug („Salzgitter Hills“). The city stretches up to 24 km (15 mi) from north to south and up to 19 km (12 mi) from east to west. The highest point is the hill Hamberg (275 m or 902 ft), located northwest of Salzgitter-Bad.

The following cities, towns and municipalities, listed clockwise beginning in the northeast, border on the city of Salzgitter. (As Salzgitter was founded on the area of the district of Wolfenbüttel, that district borders on Salzgitter in the west and in the east and is therefore listed twice.)

The area of the City of Salzgitter consists of 31 boroughs (German: Stadtteile; often called villages): Bad, Barum, Beddingen, Beinum, Bleckenstedt, Bruchmachtersen, Calbecht, Drütte, Engelnstedt, Engerode, Flachstöckheim, Gebhardshagen, Gitter, Groß Mahner, Hallendorf, Heerte, Hohenrode, Immendorf, Lebenstedt, Lesse, Lichtenberg, Lobmachtersen, Ohlendorf, Osterlinde, Reppner, Ringelheim, Salder, Sauingen, Thiede, Üfingen and Watenstedt.

These 31 boroughs are combined to 7 towns (German: Ortschaften). Each town has an elected mayor and town council.

The towns with their boroughs are:

Salzgitter originated in the beginning of the 14th century around salt springs near the village Verpstedt (later Vöppstedt). The name was derived from the neighbouring village Gitter (nowadays a city borough) as „up dem solte to Gytere“, which means „salt near Gitter“; the first mention was in 1347. After 200 years of salt production at various springs, the peasants in the area which is nowadays Salzgitter were chartered around 1350, but lost municipal law again when being transferred to the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg in the beginning of the 16th century. Later, Salzgitter belonged to the diocese of Hildesheim. When the diocese was transferred to Prussia in 1803, the municipal law was reconfirmed, but taken away once more in 1815, when Salzgitter became part of the Kingdom of Hanover. In 1830, a brine bath was established in Salzgitter.

After the Kingdom of Hanover was transferred to Prussia in 1866, Salzgitter became a Prussian municipality, which was chartered again in 1929. Prior to that, the towns Vorsalz and Liebenhall had been incorporated (in 1926 and 1928, respectively). Salzgitter now belonged to the Landkreis (district) of Goslar and included, apart from Salzgitter itself, also some small settlements like Gittertor, which is nowadays part of Salzgitter-Bad. In 1936, Kniestedt was incorporated; it is also part of Salzgitter-Bad now.

Due to the large iron ore body in Salzgitter, which had been mentioned first in 1310, the National Socialists founded the „Reichswerke Hermann Göring“ for ore mining and iron production in 1937. In order to facilitate an unobstructed development of the smelting works, a unique administration structure in the whole area was conceived. Therefore, it was decreed in the Order about the area settlement around the Hermann-Göring-Werke Salzgitter, effective from 1 April 1942, to form a unified city district (independent city). Towards this aim, the town of Salzgitter and the municipalities Beinum, Flachstöckheim, Groß-Mahner, Hohenrode, Ohlendorf and Ringelheim (7 in total, all belonging to the Landkreis Goslar) and Barum, Beddingen, Bleckenstedt, Bruchmachtersen, Calbecht, Drütte, Engelnstedt, Engerode, Gebhardshagen, Hallendorf, Heerte, Immendorf, Lebenstedt, Lesse, Lichtenberg, Lobmachtersen, Osterlinde, Reppner, Salder, Thiede-Steterburg (nowadays simply Thiede) and Watenstedt (21 in total, all belonging to the Landkreis Wolfenbüttel) were merged to form the Stadtkreis Watenstedt-Salzgitter. As the neighbouring municipality Gitter had already been incorporated in 1938, the young city initially comprised 29 boroughs in 1942. Together with the remainder of the district of Goslar, the new independent municipality was integrated into the Free State of Brunswick. In return, Braunschweig transferred the Landkreis Holzminden to the Prussian Province of Hanover. In October, 1942, the SS established the Drütte concentration camp, a subcamp of the Neuengamme concentration camp, to provide slave labour for the Hermann Göring Works. This large subcamp held 2,800 inmates. There were three concentration camps located in Salzgitter. During the war, Salzgitter was severely damaged by several American and British bombings. After the war, the State of Braunschweig became part of the Land Lower Saxony, and Watenstedt-Salzgitter became an Independent City in the „Administrative District of Braunschweig“ (later Regierungsbezirk Braunschweig).

In 1951, the city was renamed to „Stadt Salzgitter“ (City of Salzgitter), while the borough Salzgitter was renamed to „Salzgitter-Bad“, referring to the brine bath there. In the course of the local administrative reform of Lower-Saxony effective from 1 March 1974, the municipalities Üfingen and Sauingen (formerly Landkreis Wolfenbüttel) were incorporated, increasing the number of boroughs to 31. Iron ore continued to be mined in Salzgitter until 1982; in the former mine Schacht Konrad (Konrad mine), an ultimate disposal place for radioactive waste has been planned since 1975.

Population figures in order to the then area, i.e. until 1942 the contemporary quarter Salzgitter-Bad and from 1942 on the Independent City Watenstedt-Salzgitter and Salzgitter respectively.

The area of the contemporary city Salzgitter originally belonged to the diocese of Hildesheim. In 1568, the Reformation was established in Salzgitter. Two superintendencies came into existence. The southern part of the area where the city is nowadays (Superintendency Salzgitter) belonged to the Province of Hanover and thus ecclesiastically to the Evangelical Lutheran State Church of Hanover (Hildesheim Consistory). The northern part (superintendency Lebenstedt), however, belonged to the Free State of Brunswick and therefore to the Evangelical Lutheran State Church in Brunswick.

When the city Watenstedt-Salzgitter originated (1942), the whole city area was attached to the state of Brunswick, both politically and ecclesiastically. Thus all parishes of Salzgitter belong to the Church of Brunswick nowadays. The two superintendencies are called Propstei (provostry) today. However, the Propsteien Salzgitter-Bad and Salzgitter-Lebenstedt also comprise parishes that do not belong to the city of Salzgitter.

The Catholics, who moved into the city again afterwards, belonged – like before the Reformation – to the diocese of Hildesheim, which established a separate deanery in Salzgitter, to which all parishes of the city belong nowadays.

Beside the two big churches, there are parishes, too, that belong to free churches, for example a Baptist parish, the Church of God, the Plymouth Brethren and the Seventh-day Adventist Church. In addition, there are several New Apostolic Churches in Salzgitter. Due to the immigration of foreign workers during the 1970s, there are some Islamic mosques.

After the creation of Salzgitter a state commissar was set in place as provisional Mayer of the city of Watenstedt-Salzgitter. After World War II, the military government of the British zone of occupation installed the communal constitution of Britain. Furthermore, there is an elected Council in place. The Council elects one of its members to Mayor (German: Oberbürgermeister) as leader and representative of the city. Besides, since 1946 on there was the Oberstadtdirektor as the Chief Executive of the City Council. Since 2001, the office of the leader of the Council and the Chief Executive are merged into one, simply called Mayor. Being elected by the people, he represents the city and leads the Council.

Salzgitter’s Coat of Arms consists of a silver furnace visible behind a silver pinnacle wall on which there is a buckler whose upper ground is green and adorned with two saltern instruments and whose lower ground is gold and adorned with a black sledge and black iron. On the red ground behind the furnace, there are two wheaten ears.

The Coat of Arms stands for the agriculture, which is important for many villages of Salzgitter, on the one hand, and for the industry, which led to Salzgitter’s foundation, on the other hand.

This Coat of Arms is from 1951. Before, Watenstedt-Salzgitter had got a different one. Also the former town Salzgitter had got various coats of arms from 1854 on.

Like many German cities, Salzgitter has used the city’s logo for some years. It is a green field with a white snaking way that narrows towards the horizon.

The City of Salzgitter is twinned to these cities and towns:

In the north of Salzgitter, there is an Autobahn (A 39) from Braunschweig to the interchange Salzgitter (where you can change to Autobahn 7 (Kassel-Hanover). Salzgitter has got five grade-separated interchanges to this Autobahn. East from Salzgitter, there is the Autobahn 395 (Braunschweig-Goslar), which can be reached from Salzgitter by four interchanges.
Moreover, two Bundesstraßen (German highways) go through Salzgitter.

Salzgitter has six railway stations. The most important one is in the quarter Salzgitter-Ringelheim, the most central one in Salzgitter-Lebenstedt. There is no Hauptbahnhof (main railway station) in Salzgitter. Salzgitter-Ringelheim’s station is located on the Halle (Saale)-Goslar-Salzgitter-Hildesheim-Hanover line. Another line leads into the Harz Mountains and to Braunschweig, passing Salzgitter-Bad. Salzgitter-Lebenstedt is the end of a local line coming from Braunschweig and passing the other train stops of Salzgitter.

There are three bus companies in Salzgitter. The bus network is quite important considering Salzgitter consists of many spread-out villages.

In Salzgitter, the daily newspaper Salzgitter-Zeitung and the Sunday newspaper Salzgitter-Woche am Sonntag are published. There is the event calendar Salzgitter Szene and the online magazine Salzgitter-aktuell. Furthermore, the local TV channel TV 38 is broadcast by cable television.

Salzgitter is seat of these public institutions:

Since 1993, there is a site of the Fachhochschule Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel, where you can study

In addition, you can study after having completed a study in the past

and – by correspondence course –

The other sites of the Fachhochschule are Braunschweig, Wolfenbüttel and Wolfsburg.

Furthermore, there are several general-education schools (meaning that general knowledge is taught there in contrast to occupation-specific knowledge) and vocational schools, among them three grammar schools, the Gymnasium Salzgitter-Bad, the Gymnasium am Fredenberg and the Kranich-Gymnasium, the latter two located at Salzgitter-Lebenstedt.

For education outside school, there is the Volkshochschule Salzgitter with sites in Salzgitter-Bad and in Salzgitter-Lebenstedt.

There are three public libraries in Salzgitter. The main-library is located in Salzgitter-Lebenstedt (155 000 media) with branch-libraries in Salzgitter-Bad (42 000 media) and Salzgitter-Fredenberg (25 000 media).

There is no theatre in Salzgitter nor any building used as one. Yet there are several representations at various places. For example, in Salzgitter-Bad there is a society rooting in the students‘ theater of the local grammar-school that supports the amateur play. They act on various stages, with an auditory between 100 and 600 people. Furthermore, there are irregular performances of musicals.

ITAS Versicherungsgruppe

Die ITAS-Gruppe (Istituto Trentino Alto-Adige per Assicurazioni) ist der älteste italienische Versicherungsverein auf Gegenseitigkeit und unter den größten zehn Versicherungsunternehmen Italiens. Der Versicherungsverein wurde 1821 in der damaligen Grafschaft Tirol (Österreich-Ungarn) gegründet und hat heute seinen Sitz in Trient. In Italien ist die ITAS flächendeckend vertreten mit regionalen Schwerpunkten in Nordwest- und Mittelitalien. Die ITAS hat mehr als 800 Mitarbeiter und 905 Büros mit mehr als 4.600 professionellen Beratern und 200 Versicherungsbrokern. Die ITAS agiert in sechs verschiedenen Gesellschaften. Dazu zählen u.a. ITAS Versicherungen AG, ITAS Leben AG, Versicherung Val Piave und die ITAS Patrimonio,welche z.B. das Immobilienvermögen der Gruppe verwaltet.

Bereits seit Anfang der 1990er-Jahre richtete die ITAS Gruppe den Blick auch ins Ausland und hat Joint-Ventures mit der Hannover Rück Versicherung und der VHV Versicherung.

2015 erfolgte eine Übernahme der Italien-Töchter der britischen RSA-Gruppe, Sun Insurance Office Ltd (SIO) und Royal & Sun Alliance Insurance plc (RSAI), durch ITAS. Die Töchter werden unter der Marke ITAS2U weitergeführt. Dadurch arbeitet das Unternehmen nun auch in Kompetenzfeldern wie Engineering und Warentransport.

Ferner engagiert sich die ITAS für wohltätige Zwecke. Über das Projekt ITASolidale werden insbesondere soziale Projekte gefördert, die der Bevölkerung und der Allgemeinheit zugutekommen sollen. ITASolidale entspricht damit dem Wertesystem von ITAS, indem Solidarität und Gegenseitigkeit eine zentrale Rolle spielen.

Richard Conte

Richard Nicholas Peter Conte (* 24. März 1910 in Jersey City, New Jersey; † 15. April 1975 in Los Angeles, Kalifornien) war ein US-amerikanischer Film- und Theaterschauspieler sowie Filmregisseur.

Conte war der Sohn eines italoamerikanischen Friseurs und verlebte in sehr einfachen Verhältnissen seine Kindheit und Jugend. Daher schlug er sich als Heranwachsender mit Gelegenheitsjobs durch, darunter Lastkraftwagenfahrer, Schreiber an der Wall Street und singender Kellner in einem Seebad in Connecticut.

Gerade durch den Job als singender Kellner wurde er 1935 erstmals in einem Theater in New York City engagiert. Hier wurde er von Elia Kazan und John Garfield entdeckt, die den 25-Jährigen von nun an förderten. Kazan verhalf Conte zu einem Stipendium am Neighborhood Playhouse, das dieser mit Erfolg absolvierte. 1939 gab Conte in Moon Over Mulberry Street sein Debüt am Broadway und gab im selben Jahr auch sein Filmdebüt im Filmdrama Heaven with a Barbed Wire Fence.

Conte wurde ausgemustert und musste darum nicht, wie andere Schauspieler, am Zweiten Weltkrieg teilnehmen. 1942 erhielt er einen langfristigen Vertrag bei der 20th Century Fox und änderte seinen Vornamen von Nicholas zu Richard. Gerade in der Zeit zwischen 1943 und 1945 gedieh seine Karriere; er verkörperte meist Soldaten.

Nach dem Krieg übernahm er vorwiegend Rollen in Film-noir-Dramen, wie z. B. in Joseph L. Mankiewicz’s Blutsfeindschaft (1949) an der Seite von Edward G. Robinson, ehe er in den 50er Jahren, nun unabhängig, Star zahlreicher B-Movies wurde. 1965 übernahm er die Rolle des Barabbas in Die größte Geschichte aller Zeiten unter Regie von George Stevens.

1968 absolvierte Conte seine erste und einzige Arbeit als Regisseur. Es handelte sich um Operation Cross Eagles, einem Film, der in Kooperation der USA mit Jugoslawien entstand. Auch übernahm er die Hauptrolle.

Contes letzte große Rolle – seine Karriere entwickelte sich parallel zu den Kriminalfilmen seit den 1960er Jahren abwärts – sollte er 1972 bekommen. In Der Pate von 1972, verkörperte er mit Don Barzini den Kontrahenten von Don Corleone (Marlon Brando). Auch war Conte als Alternativbesetzung für die Rolle Brandos im Gespräch.

Privat war Richard Conte zweimal verheiratet. So war er von 1943 bis 1962 mit der Schauspielerin Ruth Storey vermählt. Die beiden haben einen Sohn, Mark Conte, der heute als Cutter im Filmbusiness tätig ist. Nach der Scheidung von Storey heiratete Conte 1973 eine Frau aus der Mittelschicht, Shirlee Garner.

Richard Conte starb zwei Jahre später, im Alter von 65 Jahren, an einem Herzinfarkt.

Cassie Ainsworth

Cassandra „Cassie“ Ainsworth is a fictional character in the television series Skins, portrayed by Hannah Murray.

She’s thin, she’s blonde, she says „wow“ a lot.

Cassie is depicted as being eccentric and suffering from several mental disorders — most notably, anorexia nervosa — and multiple issues, including low self-esteem, suicidal ideation, and drug addiction. Murray described her character as…

…very interesting because she has a lot of problems, and she’s very troubled, and she’s anorexic and completely lacking in self-esteem and self-belief, but along with that she’s sort of quite smart. I think that she has quite a good reading on a lot of the other characters about what they’re like and how they work and stuff, and I think she’s a very clever girl, and she’s also kind of silly and dreamy and quite fun at the same time as being a very tragic character.

The titular second episode of the first series and the penultimate episode of the second series focus on Cassie; the former focuses on her mental state and the latter focuses on her relationship with roommate Chris Miles (Joe Dempsie). The show’s producers and writers described her centric episode in an interview with The Independent as being about „how she gets through her day without eating … how she feels and what her tactics are“, and campaigned to prevent any announcement of any counselling helplines during the episode’s credits because they „didn’t want a little preachy drama where everyone hugs at the end“; instead, the producers hoped that people would recognize their own faults in Cassie. One reviewer described Cassie as being „as pale as Hamlets Ophelia and arguably twice as mad“.

The viewer is reintroduced to Cassie five years after series two in Pure, in which she is shown to have changed in many ways. Where before she was bubbly, cheerful and unashamedly quirky, she is now a shadow of her former self, appearing tired and withdrawn, living in a shared flat in London and working as a waitress in a café to make ends meet. She avoids social contact with her co-workers and flatmates, and refuses to take drugs when offered them (as opposed to her affinity towards them in the past), and secludes herself in her room. There is (season 4 episode 2) a drawing which strongly resembles Cassie posted at the front of Sophia’s room. This could be a joke made by the producers of the show.

It seems as though every single shred of joy and wonder from her youth has been tarnished; consumed and rejected by the cold realities of adulthood and responsibility. Because of this, Cassie has become a stronger person; no more is she the awkward, free-spirited girl who would happily drag on a joint and dance the night away with Sid and Chris, she’s developed into a more bitter being – one who responds with “no” more than anything else.

At the beginning of the first series, Cassie is recently discharged from hospital after a suicide attempt off-screen. Her best friend Michelle Richardson (April Pearson) arranges for her to take Sid Jenkins‘ (Mike Bailey) virginity at a party. Throughout the first series, Cassie develops an attraction to Sid, who unintentionally stands her up twice: after being unintentionally stood up in „Sid“, she attempts suicide; and after Sid stands her up again to rescue his best friend Tony Stonem’s (Nicholas Hoult) sister Effy (Kaya Scodelario) from overdosing, she decides to move to Elgin, Scotland. She postpones her plans after discovering Sid loves her; the first series ends with her meeting up with Sid on the night she moves away.

In the second series, Cassie is in a long-distance relationship with Sid; the relationship becomes strained when Sid begins to think Cassie has been unfaithful. After Sid’s father Mark (Peter Capaldi) dies, Sid travels to Scotland to meet her as Cassie simultaneously travels back to Bristol to meet Sid. Frustrated at Cassie’s disappearance and emotionally confused by his father’s death, Sid begins a relationship with Michelle.

As a result of Sid’s relationship with Michelle, Cassie becomes extremely promiscuous (with men and women) and mentally unstable: in „Chris“, her actions result in her roommate Chris Miles (Joe Dempsie) losing his job as a junior property salesman and cause a significant amount of tension between him and his girlfriend Jal Fazer (Larissa Wilson); and in „Effy“, she attributes her addiction to „mindless sex“ to her failed relationship with Sid. After Sid becomes aware of her actions, he confronts her about her promiscuity, apologises for dating Michelle, and tells her he loves her.

Cassie’s subplot in the last three episodes of series 2 focuses on her friendship with Chris. She and Sid are back together, and tells him she will „love him forever“. However, she witnesses Chris suffering from two subarachnoid haemorrhages, the second fatal. She is traumatized and flees to New York City. There, she meets a kind young Iowan named Adam (Stephen Michael Kane), with whom she forms a strong platonic friendship when he offers her a place to stay in his apartment. He later leaves the apartment to find his ex-girlfriend at Cassie’s suggestion and, distraught, Cassie gets a job as a waitress at Adam’s old diner in Manhattan. The ultimate scene of the second series depicts Sid wandering through Times Square looking for her and ends with him turning to look inside the diner.

Cassie is briefly referred to by Doug in series 6 when he mentions to Liv that he once danced for a girl to help her get through an exam, referring to Cassie’s centric episode in the second series. However he does not mention her by name.

Cassie is revisited five years later in series 7 in a feature-length episode, Pure. It is revealed that Sid did indeed find her and that the pair spent several years travelling around America, although she does not mention him by name. After ending the relationship, she moved back to England, though she moves into a shared flat in London instead of heading back to her hometown. She works as a waitress in a café, and later discovers a website titled ‚Oblivion‘, filled with candid shots of her.

Alois Grimm

Alois Grimm (* 24 October 1886 in Külsheim, Germany, † hanged 11 September 1944 in Brandenburg-Görden) was a Jesuit priest, Patristic scholar, educator, and victim of Nazi religious hostility.

After graduation from Gymnasium (German high school), the young Grimm could not decide as to whether he should follow a navy career or become a priest. Together with his father he made a retreat with Jesuits in the Netherlands, since the order had been outlawed in Germany since the Kulturkampf (1870). In the Fall of 1907, he entered the Society of Jesus. His philosophical and theological studies were interrupted by World War I, which he spent as a nurse in military hospitals. 1920 he was ordained priest and was assigned to the German Speaking Catholic Mission in Florence, Italy. From 1922 until 1926 he studied the classical languages, Latin and Greek, and history in Vienna and Heidelberg. From 1926 on he taught at the Jesuit Gymnasium, Kolleg Stella Matutina in Feldkirch Austria and after 1934 at the Kolleg St. Blasien in Germany.

As patristic scholar, Grimm worked on a critical edition of the Ambrosiaster for the Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum (CSEL) in Vienna, Austria. The Ambrosiaster is a Latin commentary on Saint Paul, dating back to the fourth century. It exists in many manuscripts and was believed to have been written by Ambrose of Milan. Grimm’s research was aimed at making a critical edition of the Ambrosiaster, which would determine the original version as well as provide an accurate account of the development of variant texts.

The rise of Naziism in Germany caused complications for the Jesuits at Sankt-Blasien, many of whom were openly opposed to the Nazi Party, its ideology, and its political program. Father Grimm was among those who became increasingly vocal in his opposition to Naziism while at Sankt Blasien, and he attracted the negative attention first of more sympathetic colleagues and then of the authorities. A layman who was teaching at Kolleg St. Blasien and a member of the NSDAP remarked, „Grimm talked in derogatory ways about our new ideology. I hope we will shut him up, for a long time, or better even, forever“. Grimm was aware of this hostile attention and had some sense of its implications: It would be my greatest honour and luck, if something happens to me. Nazi hostility to the Catholic Church, and the Jesuit order in particular, led the government to expel the Jesuits from Sankt-Blasien in 1939. Father Grimm returned to Tisis, Austria, where he taught Latin in a nearby Catholic seminary and assisted in the local parish. In 1943, an SS soldier came to Grimm and asked to be admitted to the Catholic Church. Father Grimm provided the soldier with religious instruction and eventually received the soldier’s wife and child into the Church as well. All these actions were illegal under German law at the time[citation needed][dubious ]. The soldier also introduced Grimm to an acquaintance who likewise expressed interest in entering the Church. In October 1943, the Gestapo arrested Father Grimm from the parish rectory and transported him for interrogation to the Gestapo prison in Innsbruck. Father Grimm had been arrested on the basis of a denunciation by the S.S. soldier’s acquaintance, who was a Gestapo agent.

After several weeks of interrogation and mistreatment in Innsbruck, Fr. Grimm was transferred to Berlin, where he underwent further torture and interrogation. In the summer of 1944 Father Grimm was put on trial before the so-called Volksgerichtshof, which had jurisdiction over ideological offenses against the Third Reich. Both Fr. Grimm’s „converts“ testified against him. Fr. Grimm suggested he had been entrapped. The notoriously hysterical chief justice of the Volksgerichtshof, Roland Freisler screamed in response, as was his wont, „Fishes are caught in different ways. I have to be very careful to catch a trout. If I want to catch a Jesuit, I have to use special methods. You swallowed it. That proved us right.“ His public defender, Joachim Lingenberg, wrote afterwards: „Father Grimm’s defense belongs to the most frightful memories of my life. It has to do with a piece of historical truth that we must hold onto especially in a time that cheapens the memory of such events.“. On 12 August 1944, Roland Freisler stripped Father Grimm of all civil rights and privileges damnatio memoriae and sentenced him to death for two counts of undermining the fighting spirit of the German Wehrmacht and for defeatism. Reflecting on his sentence, Grimm wrote: „The hour has come, I am going home into eternity. In a few hours, I will stand in front of my Judge, my Redeemer and my Father. It is God’s will, to be done everywhere. Don’t mourn over me, I am returning home, you have to wait. I give my life for the kingdom of God, which knows no end, for the society of Jesus, for the youth and religion of our home land“. Father Alois Grimm was hanged at the age of 57 on 11 September 1944 in the Brandenburg-Görden Prison.

Five years after the execution, Grimm’s ashes were given a resting place at the Kolleg St. Blasien by its Superior, Otto Faller: “Dear friend, this will be our vow on your silent grave, to live for the kingdom of God, which knows no end, for the society of Jesus, for the youth and religion of our home land. Farewell, dear friend. From now on, be custodian of this house and its ever renewing youth, protect us with your spirit and pray for us, so we may keep our promises, always”.

With these words, Kolleg St. Blasien was dedicated to Alois Grimm in 1949. Afterwards, other schools, buildings, streets were named after Father Alois Grimm. Today, in his hometown Kuelsheim, there is a Father Alois Grimm school. In the Jesuit Church in Innsbruck and in Pullach near Munich, Father Grimm is honored with memorial plaques. Last year, a new building in St. Blasien was named after him. Benedicta Kempner, the wife of US attorney Robert Kempner, war crime tribunals in Nuremberg set Alois Grimm a memorial in her book on the persecution of Catholic priests during the Nazi era.

Sri Andal Jeeyar Mutt Srivilliputtur

Sri Manavala Mamunigal Jeeyar Mutt is a religious centre in the temple town of Srivilliputtur. The Mutt follows the Thenkalai tradition of Sri Vaishnava culture. The Mutt has Sri Manavala Mamunigal as the torch bearer of the tradition of Vishistadvaita and Emberumanar Darsanam which is known to be the way as propagated by one of the greatest sants SriRamanuja. The mutt houses seers who have the title of Sri Satagopa Ramanuja Jeeyar. The Present pontiff of the mutt is 23rd peetam Paramahamsethyathi Sri Sri Sri Satagopa Ramanuja Jeeyar Swami. The mutt has an unbroken lineage from its founder Sri Manavala Mamunigal himself.

Sri Manavala Mamunigal visited Srivilliputtur, which is the birthplace of Sri Andal and Sri Periyalwar the greatest Vaishnavaitic Sants during the Pandya Kingdom period. Legends say that Sri Mamunigal who was the then seer of Sri Rangam visited this place for having the darshan of Thayar Sri Andal during her most celebrated Maargali Ennaikaapu Festival which is the yearly festival celebrated in Dec-Jan every month. Sri Mamunigal visited the temple only on the next day of completion of the said festival. So Sri Andal appeared in the dreams of the Archakas- the temple priests and Athyapakas – the people of the town and ordered to extend the festival for one more day so that Sri Manavala Mamunigal would have a chance to watch and enjoy divinely. As per the orders of the presiding deity of the temple Sri Andal, arrangements were made for Sri Manavala Mamunigal to witness the festival for one more day. After which Sri Andal appeared before Sri Mamunigal and asked him whether he was having any more grievances. He, after observing Sri Andal from Her crown to lotus Feet told that She looked very gracefully and offered Her a ‘kunjam’ – an ornament used by women to decorate their hair plaits. Legends also say that the said ornament of kunjam was offered by a great Tamil poet Kamban when he visited Srivilliputtur. Hence, the ‘kunjam’ is known as ‘Kamban Kunjam’. Even today on Maharasankarathi day (The first day of Tamil month ‘Thai’, usually Jan 14th or 15th ) Sri Andal blesses on the special occasion of the day blessed for the sake of Sri Manavala Mamunigal and after taking bath in the temple pond ‘Thirumukkulam – Sri Sudharsana Chakkra Theertham’, She arrives at the entrance of this Mutt and Sri Manavala Mamunigal processional deity is brought near Her to observe Her motherly divine beauty.

This Mutt is an independent mutt and is the only mutt established by Sri Manavala Mamunigal on the request of Srivilliputtur people to give them discourses on philosophical values and Sri Vaishnava tradition. Later to continue this divine duties, Sri Manavala Mamunigal established the said aacharya peetam and appointed seers to succeed him. So this mutt holds a continuous history with the Seers known as Jeeyars for past 600 years. Though there were some breaks due to the invasions, the mutt holds records of grants given by various rulers such as the King of Mysore. 23rd peetam Sri Sri Sri Satakopa Ramanuja Jeeyar Swamy was the pontiff of this mutt as of 2014 and executed various religious rites and duties.

The divinity deemed to be in the mutt is the processional deity of Sri Thiruvalmarbhan – which means „The Lord Who has His chest as a divine residence of His Consort Sri Lakshmi Devi known as Thayar“. The deity of Sri Thiruvalmarbhan available in this mutt holds a very special history. Actually, the Lord was among the ‚Pancha Berars‘ (- the important 5 forms of Lord residing in every temple that follows an aagama way of worship) of the Divya Desam of Thiruvalla which is available in Kerala known as Malainadu. A Magician who was very interested in taking away this Lord’s idol came to Thiruvalla and stole the idol and was travelling towards his native via the foot hills of Western Ghats. So at some point of time, the magician hid the idol in a small cave near Srivilliputtur and went for executing some tantric practises. That was the time when Sri Manavala Mamunigal was staying in Srivilliputtur. The Lord appeared in the dreams of Sri Manavala Maamunigal and ordered to cary Him away from the cave. Sri Mamunigal went and executed the orders of the Lord. The deity was brought to the Mutt and was desired by the Lord to stay in the town of Sri Andal – which is Srivilliputtur. So even today the processional deity of the Divya Desam of Thiruvalla is very much available in Srivilliputtur Sri Manavala Mamunigal Jeeyar Mutt and it is seated at the immediate left to Sri Manavala Mamunigal’s processional deity.


Een geluidsniveaumeter of geluidsmeter is een meetinstrument om het geluidsniveau te meten. Het resultaat van de metingen wordt gepresenteerd in decibel. De afgelezen waarde van een geluidsmeter vertoont een beperkte correlatie met de luidheid of geluidshinder van het geluid, zoals een persoon die kan ervaren; die hangt af van veel andere factoren.

Een goede geluidmeter voldoet aan de norm IEC 61672-1:2013.

Geluidsmeters worden onder andere toegepast in de volgende situaties:

Het instrument bevat een microfoon, elektronica en een afleeseenheid, tegenwoordig meestal een lcd-scherm, in plaats van de vroeger gebruikte wijzerplaat.

Het niveau dat door een geluidsniveaumeter wordt bepaald is een logaritmische maat, de logaritme van de verhouding tussen de actuele geluidsdruk en een internationaal vastgestelde referentiedruk volgens onderstaande formule:

In deze formule is

De referentiedruk is gebaseerd op de gehoordrempel van een mens, die gemiddeld bij 1000 Hz de genoemde waarde heeft. Het geluidsniveau bij deze referentiedruk is derhalve per definitie 0 dB.

Op de meeste geluidsmeters kan direct het maximum of piek-niveau afgelezen worden. Dit is namelijk met de eenvoudigste (dus goedkoopste) geluidmeetapparatuur mogelijk. Voor de menselijke beleving van geluid, of om de totale geluidenergie te meten, is echter het „kwadratisch gemiddelde“ (rms = root mean square) niveau over de tijd belangrijker. Als gedurende een bepaalde tijd wordt gemeten, geeft het piekniveau de hoogste waarde; het maximum is lager en het gemiddelde (rms) niveau is het laagst.

De prestaties van geluidsmeters zijn gestandaardiseerd in internationale normen van de IEC. Er zijn twee klassen van nauwkeurigheid voor geluidmeters, namelijk klasse 1 en 2. De klasse-1-meters zijn geschikt voor nauwkeurige metingen, voor in een laboratorium of voor het vaststellen of de geluidsproductie voldoet aan wettelijke eisen of aan milieueisen. De klasse-2-meters zijn minder nauwkeurig, maar kunnen gebruikt worden om een indicatie te krijgen van het geluidsniveau. De meetfouten bij de klasse 1 en 2 meters zijn ±1 dBA en ±2 dBA respectievelijk. Klasse-1-meters zijn aanzienlijk duurder dan klasse-2-meters.

Om de nauwkeurigheid van de geluidsmeters te waarborgen, moeten deze regelmatig gekalibreerd worden. Tevens dient vlak voor de meting de werking van het apparaat gecontroleerd te worden met behulp van bijvoorbeeld een pistonfoon.

In de microfoon wordt de wisselende geluidsdruk die op het membraan van de microfoon terechtkomt, omgezet in een elektrische spanning. Voor het meten van geluid wordt altijd een integratietijd gebruikt, om het tijdsignaal uit de microfoon om te zetten naar een RMS-waarde, gemiddeld over een tijdspanne. De IEC heeft drie integratietijden gestandaardiseerd:

Typekeur van geluidsniveaumeters (Pattern approval)

Een van de moeilijkste vragen bij de keuze van een geluidsniveaumeter is “Hoe weet je dat deze voldoet aan de geclaimde standaard?” De IEC 61672, deel 2 tracht dit te beantwoorden door het concept van de typekeur. Een fabrikant dient instrumenten voor te leggen aan een nationaal laboratorium dat een van de meters test. Als deze test overeenkomt met wat opgegeven is, geeft het laboratorium een formele typekeur af. Als de meest gebruikelijke (en strengste) keuring wordt die van PTB in Duitsland beschouwd (). Als een fabrikant niet ten minste één exemplaar van het model kan laten zien dat een dergelijke typekeur heeft, is er gegronde reden voorzichtig te zijn. De kosten voor de genoemde typekeur zijn zodanig hoog dat geen enkele fabrikant zijn complete range meters voor keuring zal aanbieden. Er zijn heel veel goedkope apparaatjes op de markt die zich voordoen als geluidsniveaumeters (vele kosten minder dan € 200,00), maar tot nu toe heeft geen enkele de opgegeven bewering kunnen bewijzen met een typekeur. Het gebruik van een dergelijke ‘meter’ kan tot gehoorschade leiden wegens mogelijke meetfouten. Zelfs de meest nauwkeurige typegekeurde geluidsniveaumeters dienen geregeld gecontroleerd te worden op gevoeligheid; dit is wat de meeste mensen ‘kalibratie’ noemen. Om de gevoeligheid te controleren geeft PTB ook typekeur af voor geluidsniveaukalibratoren volgens de IEC 60942:2003 norm. In april 2008 zijn de eerste commerciële units formeel typegekeurd, zowel Klasse 1 als Klasse 2, met keuringsnummer PTB-1.61.4028829. Deze kalibratoren bestaan uit een computergestuurde generator met extra sensoren voor de correctie van vochtigheid, temperatuur, batterijvoltage en statische druk. De output van de generator wordt gevoed door een transducer in een opening van ½ inch waarin de microfoon van de geluidsniveaumeter wordt geplaatst. Het akoestische geluidsniveau dat wordt gegenereerd is 94 dB (1 Pa) bij een frequentie van 1 kHz, waarbij alle frequentiewegingen dezelfde gevoeligheid hebben.

Geluidsniveaumeters bevatten vaak een filter om een weging op de verschillende frequenties uit te voeren. Gebruikelijk is vooral de A-weging. Daarnaast zijn de B-weging en de C-weging internationaal gedefinieerd.