Wang 2200

Wang 2200, appeared in May 1973[citation needed], was Wang Laboratories‘ first minicomputer that could perform data processing in a common computer language. Unlike some other desktop computers, such as the HP 9830, it had a cathode ray tube (CRT) in a cabinet that also included an integrated computer-controlled cassette tape storage unit and keyboard. Microcoded to run interpretive BASIC, about 65,000 systems were shipped in its lifetime and it found wide use in small and medium-size businesses worldwide. The 2200 evolved into a desktop computer and larger system to support up to 16 workstations and utilized commercial disk technologies that appeared in the late 1970s and early 1980s. The disk subsystems could be attached to up to 15 computers giving a theoretical upper limit of 240 workstations in a single cluster.

Unlike the other product lines such as the VS and OIS, Wang Laboratories aggressively used value added resellers (VARs) to customize and market 2200 systems. One such creative solution deployed dozens of 2200 systems and was developed in conjunction with Hawaii- and Hong Kong-based firm, Algorithms, Inc. It provided paging (beeper) services for much of the Hong Kong market in the early 1980s.

In the 1970s, Wang 2200 computers were extensively used by Gosplan and Goskomstat, the main Soviet planning and statistical agencies. The fear of backdoors in the Western hardware led to the reverse engineering of the original system and the development of the Iskra-226, a 100% binary compatible clone.

The development started in 1978, and the series production began in 1980, so the oft-cited reason of CoCom restriction in the wake of Afghan War (which started in 1980) appear to be baseless. Soviet computer historians note that the Gosplan and Goskomstat users much preferred the original Wang hardware, so the clones were mainly used by the other organizations, mainly in research and industry. It was helped by the fact that Iskra, while 100% software compatible with the Wang’s T-Basic code, had completely different internal structure and included many features that made it an excellent industrial controller, such as twin high-speed RS-232 interfaces, IEEE-488 equipment control interface, and CAMAC crate control circuitry. Later a somewhat simplified Unix port was created to run on this machine.

Overshadowed by the Wang VS, the 2200 languished as a cost-effective but forgotten solution in the hands of the customers who had it. In the late 1980s Wang revisited the 2200 for one last dip in the revenue well, offering 2200 customers a new 2200 CS with bundled maintenance for less than customers were then paying just for maintenance of their aging 2200 systems. The 2200 CS was accompanied by updated disk units and other peripherals, and most 2200 customers moved up to the 2200 CS, after which Wang left the market and never again developed any new 2200-series products. In 1997 Wang reported having about 200 2200 systems still under maintenance around the world. Throughout, Wang had always offered maintenance services for the 2200.

Wang 2200 Basic2 code can run on PCs and Unix systems using compilers and runtime libraries sold by Niakwa or Kerridge. These allow accessing the much larger, inexpensive random-access memory and disk space available on modern hardware. The programs run many times faster than they did on the 2200 hardware.

Nouraddin Afi

Seyyed Noureddin Afi (Persian: سيد نورالدين عافي‎‎), was born on 1964 in Khelejan, in the Central District of Tabriz County, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran. He is a %70 veteran who had participated in Iran-Iraq War for 80 months. He has said about his war memoirs in a book called Noureddin, Son of Iran, it was presented as a written book by Masoume Sepehri. Noureddin, Son of Iran led to Seyyed Noureddin Afi ’s reputation in Iran after it was published in 2011. Ayatollah Ali Khamenei writes a manuscript in appreciation of Seyyed Noureddin Afi ’s book that published in the book.

Seyyed Noureddin Afi was born on 1964 in Khelejan, in the Central District of Tabriz County, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran.He wants to participate the Iran–Iraq war, but he is not allowed at first because he is still young. He tries repeatedly and finally they let him go to war. He attends a military training course in the fall of 1980, and heads toward the western zones of Iran to serve in the sepah of the Mehabad. He moves to the southern war zones along with his brother, Sadegh. Nourreddin loses his brother in an Iraqi airstrike. With shrapnel in his body they make him go under surgery in the hospitals of Mashhad and Kermanshah many times. But he does not recover well because he is severely damaged in the face, eyes and stomach. Due to the severe injuries on his face, his countenance changes when he is only 18. In 1984, he marries a 16-year-old girl named Masoume and their child is born 4 years later. The war finishes but he is still suffering the injuries and he misses his lovely friends, especially Amir Maralbash who was killed in the war.

Seyyed Noureddin Afi’s book, Noureddin, Son of Iran won in the „Memoir“ category of the Jalal Al-e Ahmad Literary Awards (2012), Iran’s most lucrative book award.

Manitou Springs, Colorado

The city of Manitou Springs is a home rule municipality located in El Paso County, Colorado, United States. The town was founded for its scenic setting and natural mineral springs. The downtown area continues to be of interest to travelers, particularly in the summer, as the downtown area consists of many one-story, adjoining, small shops, restaurants, and pubs, as well as a creekside city park with a children’s playground made from unusual materials. Among other services, shops cater to tourist interests such as clothing, candy, souvenirs, and outdoor recreation. The main road through the center of town was one of the direct paths to the base of Pikes Peak. Barr Trail, which winds its way up Pikes Peak, is easily accessible from town. The subdivision Crystal Hills was added to the municipality in the 1960s.

The city population was 4,992 at the 2010 United States Census. Students are served by Manitou Springs School District 14 and Manitou Springs High School.

General William Jackson Palmer and Dr. William Abraham Bell founded Manitou Springs in 1872, intending the town to be a „scenic health resort“. Dr Bell’s home, Briarhurst Manor, is open to the public as fine dining restaurant, which is listed on the National Register of Historic places. In 1876, the town was incorporated. „Manitou Springs has been the quintessential tourist town since the 1870s, when visitors discovered the healing waters the Ute Indians had been drinking for years. Many of the town’s mineral springs still function today and the water is free.“

In the 1970s, Woodland Park, 19 miles (31 km) up Ute Pass, built a sewage treatment plant on top of the fault line that forms the pass. As a result, many of the springs were made undrinkable during the bulk of the 1980s, but this has since largely been corrected.[citation needed]

In 1980, the Manitou Springs Historic District was formed by the Historic Preservation Committee to manage development, renovation and preservation within the town. It is National Register of Historic Places listing and one of the country’s largest National Historic Districts.

In June 2012, the entire city was evacuated due to the Waldo Canyon fire burning nearby. Portions of western Colorado Springs were also evacuated. Manitou Springs did not suffer any fire damage, and the city was under evacuation orders from only 1:30 a.m. Monday until 8 p.m. the same day, when the order was lifted and residents were allowed back home. There was no fire damage visible from Manitou Springs, and all businesses were reopened.

On the afternoon of August 9, 2013, the city was inundated by a flash flood entering the northern edges of the city via roadways and natural channels as it descended from the flooded out US Hwy 24. Traffic was stopped in both directions as the highway barriers formed a river drifting several occupied cars down a runoff ditch. The strong current made a path down Manitou Avenue from Cavern Gulch as well as Canon Avenue meandering turbulently through streets, homes, businesses, and spillways damaging 20 homes, 8 of them significantly. The flood water threatened buildings and parking lots situated along Fountain Creek and closed a portion of Manitou Avenue which re-opened later that evening.

Manitou Springs is a local government and a home rule city located within the Colorado Springs metropolitan area.

Manitou Springs is managed by the elected mayor and six city council members. The mayor is elected to a two-year term. Council members are elected to 4 year, overlapping, terms. Three council members are „at large“ members and three members represent one of the 3 wards in Manitou Springs. Manitou Springs residents may attend the following meetings or working sessions held each month at the Council Chambers at 606 Manitou Avenue.

The Manitou Springs City Boards and Commissions include:

Situated directly along U.S. Route 24 just west of Old Colorado City and Cave of the Winds, the town is bordered by Mt. Manitou to the west, Red Mountain to the south, and Englemann Canyon, south and west. It is near Garden of the Gods, with the same red stone as Red Mountain, and is at the base of Pikes Peak. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.2 square miles (8.2 km2), all of it land.

As of the census of 2000, there were 4,980 people, 2,452 households, and 1,255 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,642.6 people per square mile (634.6/km²). There were 2,654 housing units at an average density of 875.4 per square mile (338.2/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 93.98% White, 3.65% Hispanic or Latino, 0.50% African American, 1.06% Native American, 1.12% Asian, 0.12% Pacific Islander, 0.94% from other races, and 2.27% from two or more races.

There were 2,452 households out of which 22.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.2% were married couples living together, 8.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 48.8% were non-families. 38.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.03 and the average family size was 2.73.

In the city the population was spread out with 18.6% under the age of 18, 7.2% from 18 to 24, 31.6% from 25 to 44, 32.2% from 45 to 64, and 10.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 94.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.5 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $40,514, and the median income for a family was $57,260. Males had a median income of $39,102 versus $24,286 for females. The per capita income for the city was $24,492. About 4.7% of families and 7.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.3% of those under age 18 and 10.1% of those age 65 or over.

The side of The Spa and the bridge over Fountain Creek

Cheyenne Spring House, Manitou Avenue

Manitou Avenue and Barker House

Manitou Avenue

Patsy’s Candy and arcade area

Canon Street – shops and houses overhead – Manitou Springs

Canon Street – Manitou Springs

Ruxton Avenue shops

Ruxton Avenue shop and Twin Spring

Attractions include:

Part of the commercial district

Pikes Peak as seen from Manitou Springs

Preserved Baldwin Engine No. 5 on public display at Manitou Springs Depot, September 2006

Annual Events include:












Current resident of the city, the most successful male athlete in the history of the Pikes Peak Marathon is Matt Carpenter, the outright record holder and winner of the marathon on eleven occasions.

So Much in Love

So Much in Love“ is a popular song sung by The Tymes that was a #1 song in the United States during the year 1963. It was The Tymes first hit single, topping the Billboard Hot 100 singles chart on August 3, 1963, and remaining there for one week. The song was written by George Williams, Bill Jackson, and arranged by Roy Straigis.

The song has been covered several times since the original version was recorded. Jay and the Americans released a cover version of the song on their 1969 album, Sands of Time. „So Much in Love“ was sung by Eagle Timothy B. Schmit on the soundtrack to Fast Times at Ridgemont High released in 1982 and reached #59 on the Hot 100 as a single. A 1988 rendition by Art Garfunkel got to #11 on the Adult Contemporary chart. R&B vocal group All-4-One released „So Much in Love“ in late 1993 as their debut single. The All-4-One version peaked at #5 on the Hot 100 in early 1994 and was certified gold by the RIAA, selling 600,000 copies.



Lage von Arzdorf in Nordrhein-Westfalen

Arzdorf ist einer von 13 Ortsteilen der Gemeinde Wachtberg im Rhein-Sieg-Kreis im Bundesland Nordrhein-Westfalen (Deutschland). Bis zur kommunalen Neugliederung 1969 war Arzdorf eine zum Amt Meckenheim gehörende Gemeinde im damaligen Landkreis Bonn.

Arzdorf liegt im Südwesten der Gemeinde Wachtberg, etwa 2 km von der Landesgrenze zwischen Nordrhein-Westfalen und Rheinland-Pfalz entfernt.

Geographisch gehört das Gebiet zur Voreifel, östlich fließt in 10 km Entfernung der Rhein vorbei. Arzdorf liegt am Südrand der Kölner Bucht, etwa 20 km südlich des Stadtzentrums von Bonn entfernt. 10 Km südlich liegt der Kurort Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler und 14 km östlich die Stadt Remagen, die im Zweiten Weltkrieg durch die Ludendorff-Brücke (Brücke von Remagen) bekannt wurde.

Folgende Orte grenzen an Arzdorf. Sie werden im Uhrzeigersinn, im Norden beginnend genannt und gehören alle mit Ausnahme von Eckendorf, Oeverich und Niederich die im Landkreis Ahrweiler in Rheinland-Pfalz liegen, zum Nordrhein-westfälischen Rhein-Sieg-Kreis:

Klein-Villip, Holzem, Berkum, Werthhoven, Niederich, Oeverich, Fritzdorf, Eckendorf, Adendorf

Die erste bekannte urkundliche Erwähnung der Ortsbezeichnung Artstorp stammt aus dem Jahr 1166. Beurkundet wurde eine Schenkung des Abtes Gerhard von Are an das Bonner Cassius-Stift.

1815 fiel das Rheinland und damit auch Arzdorf an Preußen. Die Gemeinde wurde der Bürgermeisterei Adendorf im Kreis Rheinbach im Regierungsbezirk Köln der Provinz Jülich-Kleve-Berg zugeteilt, die 1822 mit der Provinz Großherzogtum Niederrhein zur Rheinprovinz zusammengelegt wurde. Die Bürgermeisterei wurde später nach Meckenheim verlegt. Bei der Volkszählung am 1. Dezember 1912 hatte die Gemeinde Arzdorf 210 Einwohner.

Bei der Auflösung des Kreises Rheinbach 1932 kam Adendorf zum Landkreis Bonn. Am 1. August 1969 wurde die Gemeinde durch das Gesetz zur kommunalen Neugliederung des Raumes Bonn (Bonn-Gesetz) mit den Gemeinden des Amtes Villip und den Gemeinden Adendorf und Fritzdorf des Amtes Meckenheim zu der neuen Gemeinde Wachtberg zusammengeschlossen, die zusammen mit den übrigen Teilen des gleichzeitig aufgelösten Landkreises Bonn (soweit nicht nach Bonn oder Wesseling eingemeindet) in den Siegkreis eingegliedert wurde, der seitdem Rhein-Sieg-Kreis heißt.

Im Ortsteil Arzdorf wohnten (inkl. Zweitwohnsitze):

1 jeweils 30. Juni des Jahres. Quelle: Statistische Angaben im Haushaltsplanentwurf 2010 der Gemeinde Wachtberg
2Stand: 25. Sep. 2014

Vorsitzender der Ortsvertretung Arzdorf ist Volker Gütten (CDU) (Stand: 2010).

Adendorf mit Klein Villip | Arzdorf | Berkum | Fritzdorf | Gimmersdorf | Holzem | Ließem | Niederbachem | Oberbachem mit Kürrighoven | Pech | Villip mit Villiprott | Werthhoven | Züllighoven

Беленец, Алексей Иванович

Советский партийный и хозяйственный деятель

5 (17) марта 1887(1887-03-17)


Российская империя Российская империя→

29 января 1976(1976-01-29) (88 лет)


Алексе́й Ива́нович Белене́ц (5(17) марта 1887 года, Ейск — 29 января 1976 года, Москва) Советский партийный и хозяйственный деятель.

Родился в семье моряка. Окончил техническое училище в Ейске. Работал слесарем в железнодорожных мастерских в Ростове-на-Дону.

Член РСДРП(б) с 1903 года.

В 1905 году в Ростове-на-Дону — член Темерницкого райкома партии, начальник боевой дружины, участник вооружённого восстания. Осужден на каторжные работы. Находился в заключении (1907—1910), направлен на вечное поселение на реку Лена.

В 1911 году бежал из ссылки, вёл революционную работу в Чите, Иркутске, Томске, подвергался арестам.

После Февральской революции (1917) член Томского комитета РСДРП(б), председатель Томского совета рабочих депутатов.

В начале окт. 1917 был избран гласным Томской городской думы, в нояб. 1917 вошёл в состав городской управы, где заведовал отделом городского хозяйства. С октября по декабрь 1917 года — председатель Томского ВРК.

C декабря 1917 по июнь 1918 года — первый председатель исполкома Томского губернского Совета рабочих, крестьянских и солдатских депутатов. Председатель Томского губкома РКП(б), член Центрального исполкома Советов Сибири (Центросибирь).

С июля 1918 по август 1919 года находился в тюрьме, куда был заключён белогвардейскими властями.

После восстановления советской власти участвовал в ликвидации колчаковщины, в 1919 году — член Иркутского комитета РКП(б). С мая 1920 года — заместитель председателя Томского губревкома.

С 23 мая 1920 года — председатель Томского городского Совета рабочих, крестьянских и красноармейских депутатов.

C мая по июль 1920 — председатель Исполнительного комитета Томского городского Совета рабочих, крестьянских и красноармейских депутатов.

С июня по 25 июля 1920 — председатель Томского губернского бюро РКП(б).

Делегат XX съезда РКП(б) (1921), участвовал в подавлении Кронштадтского антисоветского мятежа.

С 1921 года на партийной работе в Москве.

С 1926 года — директор заводов в системе ВСНХ СССР и на другой хозяйственной работе. Делегат XVI съезда ВКП(б).

С 1951 года — персональный пенсионер.

Похоронен на Новодевичьем кладбище в Москве.

орден Ленина (1954)

орден Трудового Красного Знамени

Почётный гражданин Томска (1967)

Написал воспоминания о своей деятельности в Томске.

Беленец А. Нет большего счастья: Воспоминания о встречах с В. И. Лениным // Красное знамя (областная газета). — Томск, 1960. — 22 апреля.

Беленец А. И. Установление советской власти в Томской губернии: Воспоминания / В огне революционных битв. —- Томск, 1964. — С. 22-41

В честь Алексея Беленца — первого советского руководителя Томской губернии — переименована улица в Томске, установлены мемориальные доски: на бывшем губисполкоме на проспекте Ленина 111 (установлена 8 апреля 1977) и на улице Беленца.


234 км

9220 км²


г. Ак-Чеку



134 м


Казахстан Казахстан

Акмолинская область, Северо-Казахстанская область

— исток, — устье

Шагалалы (Чаглинка, каз. Шағалалы) — река в Казахстане, протекает по территории Акмолинской и Северо-Казахстанской областей.

Река берёт начало у горы Ак-Чеку. Течёт на север по широкой долине. Дно песчаное, отчасти илистое. Впадает в южный конец озера Шагалалытениз (Чаглы Большие). На реке расположен город Кокшетау. Наиболее крупные притоки: Тосын и Кенджебой (левые), Бала-Кылчакты (правый).

Длина реки составляет 234 км, площадь водосборного бассейна — 9220 км².

Название «Шагалалы» в переводе с казахского означает «местность, где много чаек».

Batalla de Solacón

La batalla de Solacón se libró en 586 EC en el norte de Mesopotamia entre las fuerzas romanas orientales (bizantinas), lideradas por Filípico, y las persas sasánidas al mando de Kardarigan. El choque fue parte de la larga e inconclusa guerra bizantino-sasánida de 572–591, y terminó en una gran victoria bizantina que mejoró las posiciones de este imperio en Mesopotamia, pero no sirvió para aproximar un final de la contienda. La guerra se prolongaría hasta 591, cuando se concertó un acuerdo negociado entre el emperador bizantino Mauricio y el sah persa Cosroes II (r. 590–628).

En los días previos a la batalla, Filípico, recién asignado al frente persa, se movilizó para interceptar una prevista invasión persa. Escogió desplegar su ejército en Solacón, controlando las distintas rutas de la llanura mesopotámica, y especialmente el acceso a la principal fuente local de agua, el río Arzamonte. Kardarigan, confiado en la victoria, avanzó contra los bizantinos, pero habían sido advertidos y se desplegaron en orden de batalla en cuanto los persas alcanzaron Solacón. Kardarigan desplegó también sus tropas y las lanzó al combate, ganando terreno en el centro, pero el flanco derecho bizantino rompió el ala izquierda persa. En aquel momento, los soldados del exitoso flanco bizantino rompieron filas y se dirigieron a saquear el campamento persa, pero Filípico fue capaz de restablecer el orden. Entonces, mientras el centro bizantino se veía obligado a formar un muro de escudos para soportar la presión sasánida, el ala izquierda romana también logró imponerse al flanco derecho enemigo. Bajo la amenaza de un movimiento de pinza, el ejército persa se derrumbó y se batió en retirada, y muchos de sus hombres murieron en el desierto por la sed o por los pozos de agua envenenados. Kardarigan sobrevivió y, con una parte de sus tropas, resistió los ataques bizantinos sobre un montículo durante varios días, antes de que el ejército victorioso se retirase.

Anticoagulant oral

Les anticoagulants oraux sont des médicaments sous forme de comprimés, destinés à empêcher la formation de caillots dans le système circulatoire. Ils se distinguent des autres anticoagulants administrés par injection.

Cette inhibition se fait de façon compétitive sur les protéines vitamine K-dépendantes.

Il existe 2 types d’AVK (anti vitamines K) :

L’usage d’AVK se fait sous surveillance régulière du temps de Quick (ou taux de prothrombine), ou plus souvent aujourd’hui de l’INR (international normalized ratio). Comme tout anticoagulant, ils exposent à des phénomènes hémorragiques : hématomes, saignements divers (nez, gencives, … ), hémorragies cérébrales, etc., particulièrement en cas de surdosage dont témoigne un INR supérieur à 5. Ces effets sont lentement réversibles, l’INR restant élevé plusieurs jours après leur arrêt. Ils comportent de nombreuses interactions médicamenteuse et alimentaires.

Plusieurs médicaments par voie orale et ne nécessitant pas de surveillance sanguine régulière sont en cours de développement. Le Ximélagatran répond à ces critères mais sa commercialisation a été arrêtée en raison d’effets secondaires. Le dabigatran ne semble pas avoir ces derniers.

Le rivaroxaban est un inhibiteur du facteur de la coagulation Xa. Il a eu son autorisation de mise sur le marché européenne le et une AMM en France le pour une indication précise : la prévention des événements thromboemboliques après une chirurgie de la hanche ou du genou. Il a été testé avec un certain succès dans la prévention des phlébites après une intervention orthopédique et s’avérant même être supérieur, lorsqu’il est donné de manière prolongée, par rapport à un traitement classique par héparine de bas poids moléculaire administrée par injections.

Voir les Inhibiteurs des Protéases de la coagulation.

Codrington Plantations

The Codrington Plantations were two historic sugarcane producing estates on the island of Barbados, established in the 17th Century by Christopher Codrington (died 1698) and his father of the same name. Sharing the characteristics of many plantations of the period in their reliance on slave labour, their particular significance was as a part of a charitable bequest in 1710, on the death of the third Christopher Codrington, to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (SPG).

The history of the plantations illustrates both the 18th century Church of England’s dependence on financial support for Christian mission work in the West Indies from local landowners, and, until the growth of the Abolitionism, an institutional unwillingness to address issues relating to slavery.

The two estates named Codrington’s and Consett’s were located in the parish of St. John on the eastern side of Barbados and covered 763 acres (309 ha) of sugarcane planting. Codrington’s will, first drawn up in 1702, also notes three windmills with associated sugar manufacturing facilities on the land, 315 indentured slaves and 100 head of cattle.

Upon the death of Christopher Codrington in 1710, the two estates were left to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel to fund the establishment of college in Barbados stating his „Desire to have the Plantations Continued Entire and three hundred negros at Least always Kept there on, and a Convenient Number of Professors and Scholars maintain’d.“ Codrington directed that a portion of his charitable bequest be used to educate the enslaved population of Barbados, but this was a gesture effectively blocked by the objections of fellow planters.

Although the monastic aspect of the college was soon abandoned, the college was constructed over an extended period from built 1714-42. The college buildings today serve as a seminary for the Church in the Province of the West Indies, an autonomous member province of the worldwide Anglican Communion.

Through his bequest Christopher Codrington was also a significant benefactor of All Souls College, Oxford donating books worth £6,000, and £10,000 in funding for the construction of the Codrington Library.

The plantations were run by managers on behalf of the SPG, and their operational oversight was nominally supervised by a Board of trustees of the Society headed by the Archbishop of Canterbury and a committee of Church of England bishops. The plantations were reliant on regular supply of new slaves from West Africa; due to ill-health, smallpox, dysentery and mistreatment, four out of every 10 slaves bought by the plantation in 1740 were reported to have died within three years.

Initially slaves were branded with the word „Society“ on their chests with a hot iron. Milton Meltzer explains that the branding practice throughout the sugar plantations was that “Already branded once by the trader, the slaves were branded a second time with their new owner’s initials.“ On branding at Codrington, Hochschild says “For nearly a decade, Codrington officials tried to reduce escapes by branding all slaves on their chests. In the end, though, the chief deterrent was the lash, plus, at times, an iron collar and a straitjacket.” Branding, the policy of one overseer and not continuous official policy of the managers, ceased within a decade of the Church taking on ownership of the Plantation.

It has been suggested that there was a deliberate „work to death“ policy in operation, as was commonly the case on other plantations and in South America. On this question, Hochschild makes the point …”in 1746 one third of Africans died within three years of arrival in West Indies, from the ordeal of the middle passage, and the shock of adjusting to the new life, foods, and diseases.” There is no specific evidence that on the Codrington plantation harsh treatment of slaves by its managers was the cause of the high death rate.

Hochschild goes on to say, “At Codrington, as throughout the Caribbean, new slaves from Africa were first “seasoned” for three years, receiving extra food and light work assignments. Slaves were vulnerable during this early traumatic period when they were most likely to die of disease, to run away… or to commit suicide. If you survived those three years, you were regarded as ready for the hardest labour.” Hochschild provides further detail about the policies of the SPG’s managers, saying that by 1826, “As a result of changes, the Church of England’s Codrington plantation, for example, had improved food, housing, clothing, and working conditions, and built a small hospital for sick and pregnant slaves.”

It was the situation in the West Indies and at the SPG’s Codrington Plantations in particular, which prompted Beilby Porteus, Bishop of Chester and later Bishop of London, to use the opportunity of preaching the 1783 anniversary sermon of the SPG at St Mary-le-Bow, Cheapside, London to issue a call to the Church of England to cease its involvement in the slave trade. It urged formulation of a policy to draw attention to and improve the conditions of the Afro-Caribbean slaves in Barbados. At that time slaveholders also used Biblical justifications for slavery.

The church relinquished its slaveholdings only after the Slavery Abolition Act of 1833. When the emancipation of slaves eventually took place, the government paid compensation under the Emancipation Act to their beneficial owners. The Church of England’s Codrington Plantations received £8,823. 8s. 9d in compensation for 411 slaves, According to the accounts of Codrington College, which had been set up (by the Church under the will by which the Plantation was bequeathed to the Church) to provide education for slaves, the compensation funds were paid into the treasury of the College.